GeneID: 198


Common Name: ILA1 Type: Gene
Chromosome: 2 (NC_000002.12) Locus: NG_008850.1 (ILA1)
HUGO Symbol: ILA1 Full Name: interleukin 1 alpha
Exons: 7 Introns: 6

The encoded protein is a potent proinflammatory cytokine, member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. It plays an essential role in the regulation of immune responses, inflammatory processes, and haematopoiesis. IL-1α is synthesized as a precursor protein of about 31 kDa. Both the precursor and the cleaved form of IL-1α are biologically active ligands of the cell surface receptor IL-1R1. It functions both as a secreted and as a membrane-bound cytokine. It is present in a wide variety of cells, including the epithelial layers of the gastrointestinal tract, lung, liver, kidney, endothelial cells, astrocytes, activated macrophages and monocytes. IL-1α has been localized into the nucleus where it functions in transcription, suppressing gene expression. Following a signal for cellular necrosis, chromatin-bound IL-1α is released in the cytosolic compartment, where it rapidly initiates a cascade of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, suggesting a role in the early phase of inflammation. Upon induction of apoptosis, cytosolic IL-1α is sequestered into the nucleus, preventing its inadvertent release and inflammation. Polymoprhisms in the IL-1α gene associated with acute pain crisis in sickle cell disease.

Synonyms: IL1 , IL-1A , IL1F1 , IL1-ALPHA


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Publications / Origin

  1. Garlanda C, Dinarello CA, Mantovani A, The interleukin-1 family: back to the future., Immunity , 39(6), 1003-18, 2013 PubMed
  2. Di Paolo NC, Shayakhmetov DM, Interleukin 1α and the inflammatory process., Nat. Immunol. , 17(8), 906-13, 2016 PubMed
  3. Hu X, Jhun EH, Yao Y, He Y, Molokie RE, Wilkie DJ, Wang ZJ, IL1A rs1800587 associates with chronic noncrisis pain in sickle cell disease., Pharmacogenomics , 17(18), 1999-2006, 2016 PubMed
Created on 2017-01-23 15:36:50, Last reviewed on (Show full history)

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